Quality of Life Concepts

Secondary Health Conditions

Pain Disability Index (PDI)

Description: A measure of the degree to which pain interferes with functioning [1].

Format: Respondents rate the degree to which pain interferes with functioning in 7 broad areas: family/home responsibilities, recreation, social activity, occupation, sexual behaviour, self-care, and life-support activity.

Scoring: Scores are assigned based on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 (no disability) to 10 (total disability). Scores range from 0 to 70. The higher the index the greater the person's disability due to pain.

Administration and Burden: Self-administered.

Psychometrics for SCI: The PDI is valid and reliable, with an internal consistency of .88 [2].

Languages: English.

QoL Concept: The PDI is a measure of Social Participation in relation to pain, which corresponds to  C (achievements) and E (subjective evaluations and reactions) of Dijker’s Model.

Permissions/Where to Obtain: Not available.

References:

  1. Tait R, Pollard C, Margolis R, Duckro P, Krause S. Pain disability index: psychometric and validity data. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1987;68:438-41.

  2. Widerström-Noga EG, Cruz-Almeida Y, Martinez-Arizala A, Turk DC. Internal consistency, stability, and validity of the spinal cord injury version of the multidimensional pain inventory. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006;87:516-23.

CLICK ON THE LISTED SECONDARY HEALTH CONDITIONS ON THE LEFT TO READ HOW THE PDI HAS BEEN USED WITH A PARTICULAR CONDITION


Pain SCI Studies: One cross-sectional survey.

  1. Widerstrom-Noga EG, Felix ER, Cruz-Almeida Y, Turk DC. Psychosocial subgroups in persons with spinal cord injuries and chronic pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2007;88:1628-35.

  2. Widerstrom-Noga EG, Cruz-Almeida Y, Martinez-Arizala A, Turk DC. Internal consistency, stability, and validity of the spinal cord injury version of the multidimensional pain inventory. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2006; 87:516-23.

Sensitivity to Impact: Widerstrom-Noga and colleagues (2007) used the Multidimensional Pain Inventory - SCI Version (MPI), the Pain Disability Index (PDI), the International Support Evaluation List (ISEL) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to define adaptational sub-groups in people with chronic pain and spinal cord injury (SCI; N = 89), and to compare these sub-groups with respect to demographic factors, level of injury, functional independence, pain disability, depressed mood, social support, and life satisfaction.

Cluster analysis identified three sub-groups of SCI chronic pain: (1) dysfunctional copers, characterized by greater pain severity, life interference, and affective distress scores, and lower levels of life control and activities scores, (2) interpersonally supported copers, characterized by moderately high pain severity, and higher life control, support from significant others, and activities scores, and (3) adaptive copers, characterized by lower pain severity, life interference, affective distress, support from significant others, activities, and higher life control scores.

Widerstrom-Noga and colleagues (2006) used the MPI-SCI, the PDI, the ISEL, and the SWLS to evaluate the internal consistency, stability, and construct validity of an SCI version of the MPI in persons with SCI (N = 161). Convergent validity was demonstrated through a strong correlation between the life interference subscale of the MPI-SCI and scores on the PDI. As well, the MPI-SCI showed good convergent, discriminative, and concurrent reliability.

Suggestions for Use:The PDI has been shown to be both a valid and reliable measure for persons with SCI, and sensitive to the impact of pain.

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