Quality of Life Concepts

Secondary Health Conditions

General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS)

Description: An index of general well-being.

Format: 18 items asking about life satisfaction and level of psychological distress. There are 6 subscales measuring anxiety, depression, positive well-being, self-control, vitality, and general health.

Scoring: There is a total score running from 0 to 110 with lower scores indicating more severe distress. The three levels of distress are sectioned accordingly: 0 to 60 reflect 'severe distress'; 61 to 72 'moderate distress'; and 73 to 110 'positive well being'. Scores can be narrowed further into severe, serious, distress, stress problem, marginal, low positive and positive well-being.

Administration and Burden: Self-administered.

Psychometrics for SCI: Not available.

Languages: English.

QoL Concept: The GWBS measures Life Satisfaction, which corresponds to Box E (subjective evaluations and reactions; life satisfaction) of Dijker’s Model.

Permissions/Where to Obtain: Public Domain; The GWBS can be obtained from:

Dupuy HJ (1977). The General Well-being Schedule. In I McDowell, C Newell (Eds.), Measuring health: a guide to rating scales and questionnaire (2nd ed) (pp. 206-213). USA: Oxford University Press.

CLICK ON THE LISTED SECONDARY HEALTH CONDITIONS ON THE LEFT TO READ HOW THE GWBS HAS BEEN USED WITH A PARTICULAR CONDITION


Pain SCI Studies: One randomized controlled trial.

  1. Nayak S, Shiflett SC, Schoenberger NE, Agostinelli S, Kirshblum S, Averill A, Cotter AC. Is acupuncture effective in treating chronic pain after spinal cord injury? Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2001;82:1578-86.

Sensitivity to Impact: Nayak and colleagues (2001) used ratings of interference with activity (a non-standardized study-specific measure) and the General Well-Being Scale (GWBS) to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for chronic pain and secondary symptoms after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to identify disease-specific variables associated with response to treatment in patients with SCI (N = 22). Pre-treatment pain interference scores were found to be higher than post-treatment pain interference scores, but this improvement was not maintained at the 3-month follow up.

Suggestions for Use: The GWBS has been shown to be sensitive to SCI-related pain but given the limited use of the GWBS in the SCI literature, further work is recommended to establish its psychometric properties and clinical utility.

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