Transportation 2018-07-25T16:13:18-04:00


Being able to move around in the community, including using different modes of transport, is a prerequisite social participation (i.e., quality of life) outside home [1]. Therefore, accessible transportation provides the critical foundation for enabling attainment of community services and participation in activities such as education, employment, and social activities [2].

Individuals with disabilities often face barriers to both independent and public transportation [3-4]. Specifically, in populations with spinal cord injury (SCI), barriers to using public transportation include physical barriers when boarding and lack of access to desired locations on fixed public transport routes. Furthermore, ondemand transportation often requires that appointments be made several days in advance with large time frames [5]. In Canada, ~ 25% of individuals with SCI reported that their transportation needs were not met to support community living [6].

Despite recognized importance, inaccessible transportation remains a key barrier to community participation and quality of life after SCI.


1. Iwarsson S, Carlsson G, and Ståhl A. Travel Chain Enabler: Development of a pilot instrument for assessment of urban public bus transportation accessibility. Technology and Disability 2000;12(1):12-3.

2. International Perspectives on Spinal Cord Injury. Bickenbach, J, Officer A, Shakespeare T, von Groote P, World Health Organization, International Spinal Cord Society, 2013 

3. Gray DB, Hollingsworth HH, Stark SL, Morgan KA. Participation survey/mobility: Psychometric properties of a measure of participation for people with mobility impairments and limitations. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2006;87(2):189-197.

4. Beyene NM, Steinfeld A, Pearlman J, Cooper RA. Exploration of health perceptions and assistive technology use by driving status as related to transportation independence in New Delhi, India. Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol. 2012;7(4):314-22.

5. Wehman P, Wilson K, Targett P, West M, Bricout J, McKinley W. Removing transportation barriers for persons with spinal cord injuries: An ongoing challenge to community reintegration. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 1999;13(1).

6. Noreau L, Noonan VK, Cobb J, Leblond J, Dumont FS. Spinal Cord Injury Community Survey: A National, Comprehensive Study to Portray the Lives of Canadians with Spinal Cord Injury. Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2014;20(4):249–264