Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
Description: A measure of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA).
Format: List of 20 adjectives that measure positive feelings, such as joy or pleasure, and negative feelings, such as anxiety or sadness. There are 10 adjectives for each dimension.
Scoring: A 5-point scale is used ranging from 1 (very slightly or not at all) to 5 (extremely). Two scores, one for each scale, are yielded, with higher scores representing greater affect on the respective subscale.
Administration and Burden: Self-administered; 2-5 minutes.
Psychometrics for SCI: Cronbach’s alpha has been reported at .89 for the PA scale and .85 for the NA scale, indicating adequate reliability. In addition, the correlations of the PA and NA scales with anxiety and depression scales showed that PA is more strongly negative related to depression than anxiety, and PA explained significantly more variance on a measure of depression.
Languages: English, Korean, Italian.
QoL Concept: The PANAS is a measure of Subjective Well-Being, which corresponds to Box E (subjective evaluations and reactions; affect) of Dijker’s Model.
Permissions/Where to Obtain: Public domain; The PANAS can be obtained from the article:
Watson D, Clark LA. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J Personality Soc Psychol 1988; 54:1063-70.
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